Introduction to windows operating system

What is WINDOWS 95/98?  
Windows 95/98 is an operating system, an operating system perform two tasks.
 ▪ Provides interface between user and the computer,
 ▪ Controls the resources (Parts) of the computer.  

Advantage of Windows 95/98:
▪ Easier to learn and use.
▪ Allows the user to work on multiple applications simultaneously. You can type a letter while printing another one.
▪ Runs in protected mode, so that the. Failure of any one program does not halt the computer.
▪ Faster processing enhances system efficiency.
▪ Advanced support for connecting and communicating with other computers.
▪ Many-advanced build in Utilities are provided.      

Difference between Windows and DOS:  
  1. Windows provides user-friendly environment as compared to DOS
  2. Windows provides GUI (Graphical User interface) in which items represented
  3. Pictures which are easier to remember while DOS provides CLI(Command Line interface) in Which everything will be done using text.
  4. Windows provides common menus Eg. Same command for printing in all software's while in DOS every time you have to write a new command.
  5. Windows provides Facilities of OLE(Object Linking Embedding) which means to transfer a data between applications.
  6. Windows provides the facility to run more than one applications at a time.
A Brief History of Windows:
Windows 1.6 in Nov. 1985:
▪ Very poor performance
▪ Very few software available.
▪ Ignored by the market Windows 2.0 in Oct 1987:
▪ Better response from application developers.
▪ Still poor performance
▪ Not widely accepted. Windows 3.0 in May 1990:
▪ Better performance compare to earlier versions.
▪ Better acceptance due to availability of faster machines. Demand for software increased in the industry. Windows 3.1 in April 1992:
▪ Improved user interface
▪ Introduction of better Presentation facilities.
▪ Introduction of OLE(Object Linking Embedding) technique for sharing data between applications. Windows 3.1.1 in April 1994:
▪ Basic Network support was incorporated.
▪ Better and more efficient file system more efficient file system. Windows 95 in 1995 Windows 98 in 1998 Windows 2000 in Feb. 2000 Windows Me in Nov. 2000 Windows XP in April 2001  

The Desktop:

  ▪ It indicates the entire screen area you see when Windows 95/98 is started. ▪ The Desktop is the on-screen work area on which windows appear, it' s the first screen that appears when the operating system has initialized. In our case it will be the Windows XP desktop.    
Components of the Desktop:
windows operating system desktop

   Shortcut Icons
▪ Icon is a small picture on the screen representing. An object, an. object may be an application or folder. Shortcut icons allow quick access to commonly used programs, folders or documents.
▪ Shortcut icons contain an arrow at the bottom of the picture.
▪ Icons help you execute commands quickly.  

 Start Button:
▪ It allows access to various menu commands.
▪ It is used for starting a program, find a file, or get help. All application are accessible through the start button.    

Date and Time Area:
▪ It displays the current time from the internal clock. It provides other status information about the system like print status, volume status.    

Quick Launch Icons:
▪ It shows all the application in the form of boxes
▪ Quick Launch icons are used to execute a command quickly.
▪ What-ever applications are frequently used, keep it in quick launch icon area so that when-ever need you can open it quickly.
▪ Icons help you execute commands quickly

Task Bar:

windows operating system taskbar
   At the bottom of the Windows screen, it contains the Start button, icons for open applications, the Quick Launch area, and the notification area or Date and Time Area.
▪ The long horizontal bar at the bottom of the screen is called the taskbar.
▪ It shows all the application in the form of boxes.
▪ It allows shifting from one application to another
▪ In the graphical user interface (GUI) for a computer operating system or application, a taskbar is a visual device on the desktop that typically shows the user which applications (tasks) are currently active and running. Some taskbars, such as those in Windows operating systems, also include icons for commonly-used utilities such as the system clock and antivirus software. In some systems, the user is allowed to modify the contents, location, or appearance of the taskbar. After that, you can right-click any one of them and get your context menu. It looks like this:
windows operating system taskbar options

   From here you can do the following:
  • Cascade – Resizes windows of selected applications to cascade on screen.
  • Tile Horizontally – Resizes windows and "stacks" them one on top of the other.
  • Tile Vertically – Resizes windows and puts them in "columns".
  • Minimize Group – Sends all apps selected to the taskbar
  • Close Group – Will close all selected apps

What is Mouse Pointer?

  ▪ The arrow shape, on the screen, that follows the movement of the mouse is known as mouse pointer. It indicates which point of the screen will be affected when you press the mouse button. The pointer may change shape during certain tasks.  

Mouse Actions: There are four possible mouse actions:  
   a) Left Click:
    ▪ Move the mouse to point an object.
    ▪ Press and release the left mouse button;
   b) Right Click:
    ▪ Move the mouse to point art object
    ▪ Press and release the right mouse button.  
   c) Double Click:
    ▪ Point an object and click the left mouse button twice quickly
    ▪ There should be no movement between the two clicks there should be no time gap, between the two clicks.  
   d) Drag:
    ▪ Point an object and press the left mouse button
    ▪ Move the mouse without releasing the button.
    ▪ Release mouse button when mouse reaches the final location.  

What is a window?

▪ A window is an area on your desktop within which all Windows-based programs run.
▪ You can open, close, and move window and change the size; of the window.
▪ You can open several window at a same time and reduce a window or to enlarge it to fit the entire desktop.  

Opening a Window/Application: Software can be opened in the following manner:
▪ Double click the shortcut icon on the desktop, if available.
▪ Click start button and select appropriate option from the programs menu
▪ If application is already opened but hidden, then click on task bar button Can you explain the parts of a window? Yes, I will use WordPad as an example.

complete wordpad help
Control Box
▪ The control box provides a menu that enables you to restore, move, size, minimize, maximize, or close a window.
2. Border
▪ The border separates the window from the desktop. You resize the window by dragging its borders outward to expand it and inward to contract it.  
3. Title bar
▪ The title bar displays the name of the current file and the name of the current program.
4. Minimize button
▪ Use the Minimize button to temporarily decrease the size of a window or remove a window from view. While a window is minimized, its title will appear on the taskbar. With Mouse:
  • Click the minimize button to minimize a window
  • alternately select the minimize command from the control menu.
With Keyboard:
  • Press :ALT + Spacebar + N
5. Maximize button
▪ Click the Maximize button and the window will fill the screen. With Mouse:
  • Click the maximize button to maximize a window,
  • Alternately select the maximize command from the control menu. (Located at the top left corner of a window)
With Keyboard:
  • Press ALT + Spacebar + X
6. Restore button
▪ After you maximize a window, if you click the Restore button, the window will return to its former size. With Keyboard:
  • Press ALT + Spacebar + R
To restore a window which is minimized:
  • Press ALT + TAB
7. Close button
▪ Click the Close button to exit the window and close the program. With Mouse:
  • Click the close button to close the window
  • Alternately option select the close command from the control menu
With Keyboard:
  • Press: ALT + Spacebar + C
  • Alternative option: ALT + F4
8. Menu bar
▪ The menu bar displays the program menu. You send commands to the program by using the menu.
▪ Menus provide a way for you to send commands to the computer (tell the computer what you want the computer to do)
▪ When you open a window, menu options are listed from left to right just below the title bar on the menu bar. When you click a menu item, a drop-down menu appears.
▪ Select the command you want to execute from the drop-down menu. An ellipse after a drop-down menu item signifies that there are additional options if you select that option, a dialog box will appear.
9. Toolbars
▪ Toolbars generally display right below the menu, they can be dragged and displayed along any of the window borders. You use the icons on the toolbars to send commands to the program.
10. Work Area
▪ The work area is located in the center of the window. You perform most of your work in the work area.
11. Status bar
▪ The status bar provides you with information about the status of your program.   How do I switch between windows?
If you have several windows open at the same time, the window on top is the window with focus. You can only interact with the window with focus. To change windows, do one of the following:
▪ Click anywhere on the window you want to have focus.
▪ Hold down the Alt key and press the Tab key (Alt-Tab) until you have selected the window to which you want to change.
▪ All active files display on the taskbar. Click the taskbar button for the window you want to have mm
What does it mean to "cascade your windows?"
▪ Cascading your windows is a way of organizing your windows on your desktop. Cascading
▪ Windows fan out across your desktop with the title bar of each window showing.  

How do I cascade my windows? to cascade your windows:
1. Right-Click the taskbar. A menu will appear.
2. Click Cascade Windows.
What does it mean to "tile your windows?"
▪ Tiling you windows is a way of organizing your windows on screen. When you tile your windows, Windows XP places each Window on the desktop in such a way that no window overlaps any other window.
▪ You can tile your windows horizontally or vertically.
How do I tile my windows? to tile your windows:
1. Right-Click the taskbar. A menu will appear.
2. Click Tile Windows Horizontally or Tile Windows Vertically, whichever you prefer.

Write a note short note on windows explorer

Ans: - By doing these steps you can show the windows explorer.
Start -> Program -> Windows explorer. * There are many more 3 methods to open explorer.  
▪ Method 1: Hold down the START button and press the E- key
▪ Method 2: Click the START button, click on run and type explorer into the box and press enter.
▪ Method 3: Open MY COMPUTER and click on the Folders button at the top of the MY COMPUTER environment.
▪ Method 4: Click Start -> (All) Programs -> Accessories -> Windows Explorer

windows explorer
Here different .drivers and different directories are at left side. Selecting proper drive and directory at right panel can get list of file directory.
▪ The Explorer is an indispensible tool in an operating system, since with it we can organize and control the files and folders of the different storage systems at our disposal such as the hard drive, disk drive, etc.
▪ The Windows Explorer is also known as the File Manager. Through it we can delete, see, copy, or move files and folders.
▪ We suggest you pay particular attention to this unit because of its great importance.
  Coping, Deleting and Renaming files and folders. All of these tasks are straightforward and can be achieved using the same method. First, navigate to the folder where the file or folder is stored, and then right click on the file/folder of interest. You. Will be presented with a menu similar to that showing on below fig-

windows explorer options
▪ Copy: - Clicking on this option will copy the file or folder into (the clipboard) memory. You can then navigate to the folder where you want to copy the file to, right click in the right panel and select paste from the menu that appears.
▪ Delete: - This option will delete the file or folder (send it into recycle bin), Windows XP will prompt you for confirmation first. ▪ Rename: - This option allows you to rename the file or folder, simply type in the new name and press the enter key.    

Define GUI
▪ Windows 97 is GUI (Graphical User Interface).
▪ It is not necessary to type long command by keyboards or remember long command. In win-98 .c
▪ ommand can be operated by clicking on graphical symbol or menu.
Give the steps to create folder in my documents?
▪ To create folder in my documents just simply right click on blank space there will be a menu show on, now select the new and again select folder option to create folder in my documents.
  Give the various ways of copying files from one folder to another folder You can also copy and paste to copy a file:
(1) Select the file that you want to copy.
(2) Open the Edit menu and Select Copy Command OR press Ctrl+C (Windows).
(3) Then select the destination
(4) Either choose Paste from the Edit menu or press Ctrl+V (Windows) What are hidden file ?

▪ Hidden files are those files that are not listed with DIR.
▪ Some application programs create hidden files. DOS also creates hidden files when it formats a disk with the /s option.
▪ ATTRIB, an external DOS command, can be used to find out if there are any hidden files in any directory.
▪ For example, ATTRIB C:\*.* displays attributes for all .files in the root directory of drive C. If DOS displays "H" against a file name, it indicates that file is hidden. What is the use of autoexec.bat file ?   ▪ AUTOEXEC.BAT is a special batch file that is run automatically when DOS starts.
▪ In the filename AUTOEXEC.BAT, 'AUTOEXEC' stands for automatically executable and 'BAT' stand s for the batch file.
▪ You can use this file to set-up the starting directory, change system prompt, change date/time, or automatically start some programs such as a word processor or Windows.    

What is an shortcut ? How to create an short cut in start menu ?
▪ A special type of file in some operating systems that points to another file or device. Shortcut allows quick access to commonly used programs folders or documents.
▪ You can place shortcuts on the desktop to conveniently access files that may be stored deep in the directory structure.
▪ Double- clicking the shortcut icon is the same as double-clicking the actual file. Short cut icons contain an arrow at The bottom.
▪ You can control how a shortcut appears by naming it anything you want and associating a particular icon with it.
▪ To create a shortcut on the desktop to a program or file, there are two possible methods to choose from.

Method 1
▪ Right-click an open area on the desktop, point to New, and then click Shortcut.
▪ Click Browse. Locate the program or file to which you want to create a shortcut, click the program or file, click Open, and then click Next.
▪ Type a name for the shortcut. If a Finish button appears at the bottom of the dialog box, click it. If a Next button appears at the bottom of the dialog box, click it.

create shortcut in windows operating system
Method 2
▪ Click Start, point to Programs, and then right-click the program you want to create the shortcut to.
▪ Click Create Shortcut.  

Write a note on Recycle Bin.

▪ Recycle bin is an area in the hard disk for storing deleted files.
▪ Recycle bin is available on the desktop, or in the explorer.
▪ Any file or folders, which have been deleted in Windows 95/95 is stored in the recycle bin.
▪ The purpose of recycle bin is to restore files which have been deleted.
▪ Recycle bin has a pre-set size, which defined the number of files it can store. When the recycle bin is full, it deletes earlier files automatically.  
Restoring deleted file from the recycle bin:
1. Double click the recycle bin icon on the desktop.  
2. Click the right mouse button of the file to be recovered.  
3. Select the restore option from menu.  

Empting the recycle bin
1. Click the right mouse button on the recycle bin icon and select the "empty recycle bin" command.

Allocating space to the recycle bin:
  1. Click the right mouse button on the recycle bin icon, and select the properties option.
  2. Drag the space together, to denote the space required.

recyclebin properties
   It has reserved 10% of total hard disk capacity for the Recycle Binby default. Ten percent might be considered very huge if based on today's huge hard disks. For instance, on a 100GB hard disk, 10% works out to be 10GB. A total of 10GB reserved space for Recycle Bin might be too huge.

DOS Commands

▪ Commands are the way of communicating with computers.
▪ Anything we want the computer system to do is told in the form of commands in the predefined syntax.  
 DOS has two types of commands: -
1) Internal Commands
2) External Commands  

Internal commands: - An Internal command, which is a command embedded into the file, these are those commands for which the code for executing them is stored in COMMAND.COM and they execute without the requirement of any other file. When an internal command is issue by the user, the transient portion knows what to do & executes that command.

External commands: - External command, which is not embedded into and therefore requires a separate file to be used. These are the independent executable files that can be used as separate utilities also. Information about these files is also stored in the transient portion. When an external command is issued, the transient portion picks up the relevant file of that command & executes it.

  1. 1. TIME
Displays current time and allows it to be changed.
Syntax: TIME  
  1. 2. DATE
Displays current date and allows it to be changed.
 Syntax: DATE  
  1. 3. CLS
Clears the screen. Syntax: CLS  
  1. 4. DIR
Shows directory information of a diskette: name, size, and the date and time stamp of files.
Syntax: DIR [d:][path] Optional switches: /p Display dir info and pauses display when the screen is full /w Display names and extensions only in five columns   To display a file directory listing for D:\LET\ANNUAL D:\LET\ANNUAL>DIR (from D:\LET\ANNUAL) D:\DATA>DIR \LET\ANNUAL (from D:\DATA) C:\WINDOWS>DIR D:\LET\ANNUAL (from C:\WINDOWS)
DIR *.DOC Is the equivalent to DIR ????????.DOC and matches the first four files (those with the DOC extension)
DIR *.* Is the equivalent to DIR ????????.??? and matches ALL files. Use *.* with care e.g. DEL *.* deletes ALL files in the current directory, regardless of extension!!
DIR ?.DOC Matches A.DOC and B.DOC
DIR ?.* Matches A.DOC, B.DOC, A.TXT and B.TXT
DIR A?.DOC Matches A.DOC and AA.DOC
DIR A*.DOC Matches A.DOC, and AA.DOC
  1. 5. COPY
It copy one or more files to another location.
Syntax: C:\>copy <source> <target> /v Verify, copies the file and compares it with the original /b Binary file /Y - "Quiet" mode; if you overwrite a file you will not be informed. /-Y - Makes good and sure you know if there is an overwrite. (COPY file.text C:\Backup(Causes warning if the file exists there already)) Example: C:\copy 1.txt D:\Test It copies 1.txt file to Test Directory of D:\ Drive.  
COPY 1.txt D:\ Copies 1.txt file to D:\ Drive
COPY Test/*.* D:\ It copies all the files of Test Directory to D:\ Drive
COPY ?.DOC D:\ It copies any file with only one character name to D\ Drive.
? indicates zero or one character only. Like Matches A.DOC and B.DOC and 1.DOC etc.COPY ?.* D:\Matches A.DOC, B.DOC, A.TXT and B.TXT and copies to D:\ driveCOPY A?.DOC D:\Matches A.DOC and AA.DOC and AB.DOC etc. and copies to D:\ driveCOPY A*.DOC D:\Matches A.DOC, and AA.DOC and ABCCCC.DOC and copies to D:\ drive
  1. 6. COPY CON
It is used to create a file
Syntax: C:\>copy con <filename>
Example C:\copy con 1.txt This creates the 1.txt file. Once the above command has been typed in, a user could type in whatever he or she wishes. When you have completed creating the file, you can save and exit the file by pressing CTRL+Z.  
  1. 7. TYPE
Displays the contents of a file.
Syntax: TYPE <File Name> To display the contents of the file MY.TXT to the screen A:\>TYPE MY.TXT  
  1. 8. DEL
Deletes a file from disk.
Syntax: DEL <File Name> To delete MY>TXT file From D:\ Drive:
 A:\>DEL D:\MY.TXT To del all files in current directory A:\>DEL *.*  
  1. 9. REN
Renames a file. Syntax: REN <Old File Name> <New File Name>   To change the name of the file D:\LET\ANNUAL\99.DOC to 1999.DOC D:\LET\ANNUAL>REN 99.DOC 1999.DOC  
  1. 10. MD
Makes (creates) a new directory.
Syntax: MD <Directory Name> To create a directory named ABC in the root of D: drive
D:\>MD ABC (from D:\)
C:\>MD D:\HERMIT (from C:\)  
  1. 11. RD
Removes an existing directory(directory must be empty).   Syntax: RD <Directory Name>   To remove the ABC sub-directory D:\>RD ABC (from D:\) C:\>RD D:\ ABC (from C:\)  
  1. 12. CD
Changes the current directory.
Syntax: CD [path][dirname] To make
D:\Test on current directory
D:\>CD Test
 (from D:\)
To move to previous directory
D:\>CD ..
To move to ROOT directory
D:\>CD \
  1. 13. VER
ver command displays the MS-DOS version no.
Syntax: C:\>ver
  1. 14. VOL
It displays the current volume label and the serial number of the specified drive. If drive specifier is omitted vol takes the current drive by default.
Syntax: C:\vol <d:>
  1. 15. PROMPT
It changes the appearance of the command prompt or displays the current prompt.
 Syntax: C:\>prompt <text>

External Commands

1) ATTRIB – It lets you display or alter the attributes assigned to a file or directory.
    Syntax: C:\>attrib <+A/-A><+H/-H><+R/-R><+S/-S> <d:><path> <filename>
                +A: - add archive attributes
                -A: - remove archive attribute
                +H: - add hidden attributes
                -H: - remove hidden attribute
                +R: - add read-only attributes
                -R: - remove read-only attribute
                +S: - add system attributes
                -S: - remove system attribute

2) CHKDSK – It checks a disk's file allocation table entries for errors & find whether the files are o.k. or not. It also Check a disk to see how much space there is available, and how much is in use.  
Syntax: C:\>chkdsk <path>

3) DISKCOPY - Copies the contents of one drive to another.
    DISKCOPY [source drive] [destination drive:] [/1] [/V] [/M]  
  /1   Copies only the first side of the disk.
  /V   verifies that the information is copied correctly.
  /M   Force multi-pass copy using memory only.

4) FORMAT – It creates a new directory & file allocation table for the disk.
           Syntax: C:\>format <drive name>

5) SCANDISK – It checks a drive for errors and corrects any problems that it finds.
          Syntax: C:\> scandisk <drive name>

6) TREE – The structure of the specified drive from the specified directory down, listing all the sub-directories it encounters is displayed graphically.
          Syntax: C:\>tree <drive name>

7) DELTREE – It deletes a directory and all the files and sub-directories contained within it.
          Syntax: C:\>deltree <drive><path>

8) XCOPY – It is used to copy all the files in a directory, including the files in the sub-directories of that directory.
          Syntax: C:\>xcopy <source> <destination>

Differentiate COPY and XCOPY command.
 ▪ COPY command: COPY command allows you to copy one or more files to another location(directory) or same directory.
Syntax : COPY [/A] [/B] source [/A][/B] destination e.g copy C:\BCA\*.*\C:\BCA\FYBCA

 ▪ XCOPY command: The XCOPY utility allows a user to copy the contents of more than one directory at a time and retain the directory structure.
 e.g C:\>XCOPY C:\trail C:\r

Difference between copy and diskcopy
The copy command is used to copy all the files only it will not copy files from the sub directory and it will not copy any folder also The diskcopy command is used to copy the complete contents of a diskette to another diskette; i.e. it makes a duplicate diskette.
Before overwriting copy command will prompt the conformation massage. DISKCOPY destroys all contents on the target diskette without giving you ant warming. To avoid mix-up of source and target diskettes, always write-protect the source diskette.
Difference CD\ and CD..
Used to go to root directory Used to go to previous directory means goes back one directory.
Before overwriting copy command will prompt the conformation massage. DISKCOPY destroys all contents on the target diskette without giving you ant warming. To avoid mix-up of source and target diskettes, always write-protect the source diskette.
Result : C:\>Eg.C:\Windows\COMMAND>cd.. Result : C:\Windows>  

Difference del and rd
Delete one or more files from the current directory Remove current directory, this command will only work if the folders are empty.

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