January 2019

A Character denotes any letter, digit, punctuation mark, or any other sign used in the representation of information in any language. BASIC, like other computer languages, has the following character set:
  1. Alphabets:
  • A, B, C, D…………Z (26 character)
  1. Numerals:
  • 0, 1, 2, 3,…………9 (10 characters)
  1. Special Characters:
         -        Minus (operator for subtraction)
         +       plus (operator for addition)
         *       asterisk (multiplication operator)
                slash (division operator)
               caret (exponentiation operator)
         (        opening bracket (left parenthesis)
                closing bracket (right parenthesis)
         ,        comma
         ;        semicolon
         :        colon
        $        dollar symbol
             equality or assignment symbol
         .        decimal point
        >       greater than
        <       less than
                quotation mark (16 characters)
 
 Only these fifty-two characters are allowed to construct statements in BASIC. Blank space is a character when used in string constant. Other characters used are # and ?.

What is editor?
 ▪  Interface development environment in which you can execute your QBASIC source program is called editor.
 ▪  The editor which helps user to write and edit his programs.
 ▪  It is a tool for writing a programs.
 ▪  Below is Q-basic Editor for writing a q-basic programs

Concept of Compiler, Interpreter and Editor | Concept of Editor | What is an Editor? | Concept of Compiler | What is mean by Compiler? | Concept of Interpreter | What is mean by an Interpreter? | BCA-Notes | SEM-1| CPPM-Notes


    What is Compiler?
 ▪  A translator program that translates a high-level language program into its equivalent machine language program.
 ▪  It translates a whole programs and at the end it displays all the errors or warning at a time.
 ▪  It translates whole programs at a time.

  What is an Interpreter?
 ▪  It is also a translator program that translates a high-level language program into its equivalent machine language program.
 ▪  But it interpret(translates) one line and any error or warning is there then it displays it and stops the program conversion until you solve that error.
 ▪  It translates programs line by line.

"Computer programming in which the statements are organized in a specific manner to minimize error or misinterpretation."

 ▪  Structure Programming is an approach to the design and development of programs. It involves decomposing of the main program into smaller program segments called modules that define specific processing activities. The modules are arranged into a hierarchical structure. A module is a unit or entity that is responsible for a single task.

 ▪  Structures programming can be understood easily using abstraction. Abstraction means being able to understand the overall purpose of some code without understanding the detail.

 ▪  Structured programming is a special type of procedural programming. It provides additional tools to manage the problems that larger programs were creating. Structured programming requires that programmers break program structure into small pieces of code that are easily understood. It also frowns upon the use of global variables and instead uses variables local to each subroutine. One of the well known features of structural programming is that it does not allow the use of the GOTO statement.

 ▪  It is often associated with a “top-down” approach to design. The top-down approach begins with an initial overview of the system that contains minimal details about the different parts.

A set of instructions to carry out these functions is called a program. A group of such programs that are put into a computer to operate and control its activities is called the software. Software is an essential requirement of computer systems. As a car cannot run without fuel, a computer cannot work without software. There are four major kinds of software that are implemented as below:
  Figure : Layers of Software
1)      Operating System
2)      Utility Program
3)      Language Processors
4)      Application Program
  • Standards
  • Unique
1. Operating System:
 The software that manages the resources of a computer system and schedules its operation is called operating system. The operating system acts as an interface between the hardware and the user programs and facilitates the execution of the programs.
The principal functions of operating system include: 
▪  To control and coordinate peripheral devices such as printers, display screen and disk drives.
▪  To monitor the use of machine’s resources.
▪  To help the application programs execute its instructions.
▪  To help user develop programs.
▪  To deal with any faults that may occur in the computer and inform the operator.
 The most popular operating system for an 8-bit microprocessor is CP/M (Control Program for Microprocessors). Recently, with the introduction of 16/32-bit processors, operating systems such as MSDOS, UNIX and CP/M-86 are becoming popular.

2. Utility Program: There are many tasks common to a variety of application. Examples of such tasks are:
 ▪  Sorting a list in a desired sequence
 ▪  Merging of two programs
 ▪  Copying a program from one place to another
 ▪  Report writing   One need not write programs for these tasks. They are standard, and normally         handled by utility programs. Like the operating system, utility programs are pre-written by the   manufacturers and supplied with the hardware. They may also be obtained from standard software   vendors.    

  3. Language Processors: Computers can understand instructions only when they are written in their own language called the machine language. Therefore, a program written in any other language should be translated into machine language. Special programs called language processors are available to do this job. These special programs accept the user programs and check each statement and, if it is grammatically correct, produce a corresponding set of machine code instructions. Language processors are also known as translators.
 These are two forms of translators:     

  1. Compilers 
  2. Interpreters 

    A compiler checks the entire user-written program (known as the source program) and, if error-free, produces a complete program in machine language (known as object program).
   An interpreter does a similar job but in a different style. The interpreter translates one statement at a time and, if error-free, executes. This continues till the last statement. Thus an interpreter translates and executes the first instruction before it goes to the second, while a compiler translates the whole program before execution.
   The major differences between them are: 
  1.  Error correction (called debugging) is much simpler in the case of the   interpreter because it is done in stages. The compiler produces an error list for the entire program at the end.
  2. Interpreters take more time for the execution of a program compared to compilers because a statement has to be translated every time it is read.    
  4. Application Program: While an operating system makes the hardware run properly, application programs make the hardware do useful work. Application programs are specially prepared to do certain specific tasks. They can be classified into two categories.
  •  Standard application 
           ▪  Sales Ledger
           ▪  Purchase Ledger 
           ▪  Statistical Analysis 
           ▪  Pay roll 
           ▪  Inventory Management 
  •  Unique application- Requirement is unique that is unique application. There are situations where one may have to develop one’s own programs to suit one’s unique requirements.

What is Problem Solvig? | Computer as a Problem Solving Tool | Steps of Problem Solving | Methods of Problem Solving | How to solve any problems | BCA Notes | Sem-1 | CPPM-Notes
If we are to use the computer as a problem-solving tool, then we must have a good analysis of the problem given. Here are some suggested steps on how to go about analyzing a certain problem for computer application:
  1. Review the problem carefully and understand what you are asked to do. 
  2. Determine what information is given(input) and what result must be produced(output).
  3. Assign names to each input and output items.
  4. Determine the manner of processing that must be done on the input data to come up with the desired output (i.e., determine what formulas are needed to manipulate the given data).

Programming Languages:
  • The language used in the communication of computer instruction is known as the Programming language.
  •  The computer has its own language called binary language means computer can only understands binary language instructions. But it is very difficult to understand.
  •  Normally all the programming languages are written into high-level languages like English languages.
  • Some programming languages are C,C++,Java,Qbasic,vb.net etc.   
There are three levels of programming languages available.
  1.  Machine language (low level languages)
  2. Assembly (or symbolic) language
  3. Procedure-oriented languages( high level languages)   
1.Machine Language:
  •  Machine language means low level languages normally human can’t understand easily. This language includes binary code like o and 1 only.
  • It is very difficult to understand.
  • There is no need of any compiler.
Advantage:
  • It is very fast language because there is no translation process

Disadvantages:
  • It very difficult to understand
  • Difficult to debug a program
  • We need very deep knowledge of hardware   
2.Assembly Language:
  • It is also known as symbolic language it includes some symbols and letters to write a program instead of writing a binary code.
  • For example, ADD or A is used as a symbolic operation code represent addition and SUB or S is used for subtraction
  • There was very difficult to write a code using binary code so the solution of this problem is Assembly language it uses some symbols and letters instead of writing a binary code
  • Translator program is required to translate the Assembly Language to machine language. This translator program is called Assembler.
  • It is considered to be a second-generation language.
Advantage:
  • It is easy to understand compare to low level language
  • Easy to debug a program
Disadvantages:
  • We need very deep knowledge of hardware
  • Slower compare to low level languages because it require assembler to conversion process.
3.High level Language:
  • High level languages is more user friendly, human can easily understand this type of languages.  
  • These languages consists of a set of words and symbols and one can write programs using these in conjunctions with certain rules like ‘ENGLISH’ language.
  • It is like a English language so to understand to computer we need to convert it into low level language because computer can only understand low level language.
  • So there  is compiler used to convert it into low level language
  • The most important characteristics of a high level language is that it is machine independent and a program written in a high level language can be run on computers of different makes with little or no modification.
Advantage:
  • It is very easy to understand compare to low level and Assembly language
  • Easy to debug a program
Disadvantages:
  •  Slower compare to low level and Assembly languages because it require Compiler or Interpreter to convert high level language into machine code.


what is Programming Language? | What is Structured Language? | Definition of Programming Languages & Structured Programming | BCA Notes | Sem-1 | Cppm notes

what is flowchart | flowchart symbols description | cppm notes of flowchart | flowchart definition
 A flowchart is a diagrammatic representation that illustrates the sequence of operations to be performed to arrive at the solution.
  • A pictorial representation, which uses predefined symbols, to describe either the logic of a computer program (program flowchart), or the data flow and processing step of a system.
  • A flowchart is a pictorial form the sequence of steps performed for solving the problem.
In drawing flowchart, certain convention has come into use.

Indicates START or END  of the program

Indicates Computational steps (arithmetic operations)

Indicates an operation of reading or writing

Indicates a Decision Point. A test is performed and the program flow continues  on each outgoing path conditional to the answer to the test

Connector or joining of two parts of program

Indicates flow of the data


complete help to ms word standard toolbar with description | bca sem 1 notes | bca sem 1 pc software notes | computer science notes
Below are some of the more commonly used buttons on the standard toolbar:

New - Use this to start with a blank new document.
 
Open - Use this to open a document you already have.
Save - Use this to save your document.  If you have not saved it before, Word will also ask for a name for the document.
Print - Use this to print the entire document.  If you wish to print only certain pages you need to choose Filefrom the Menu bar and then Print…
Print Preview - Use this to see how your document will look before printing it.
Spelling and Grammar - This runs a spell-check on your document.
Cut - Use this to remove a highlighted section from your document.  This is like deleting the section, except that the information is kept in the computer’s memory in case you need it later.
Copy - This makes a copy of a highlighted section into the computer’s memory for later use.
Paste - Use this to put into the document whatever you have cut or copied earlier.
Undo - Use this to undo the last thing you did, or click on the black down-arrow to choose which of several recent actions you wish to undo.
Redo - This re-does what you just un-did.
Tables and Borders - This opens up a toolbar to create and alter tables, borders, and shading.
Insert Table - This lets you insert a table in your document.  A table is made up of rows and columns of cells.
Insert Columns - This allows you to split sections of your document into columns like a newspaper.
Drawing - This opens up a Drawing Toolbar at the bottom of the screen, which allows you to insert neat graphics into your document.
Show/Hide - Use this button to toggle whether or not you can see spaces and end-of-line marks.  This is useful for editing.

The Formatting Toolbar

Font - Click the black down-arrow to choose a new font to type with.  A font is a type style that determines how the letters will look.
Font Size - Click the black down-arrow to change the size of the font, or type right in the box to enter a custom size.
Bold - Click here to begin typing in bold face.
Italic - Click here to begin typing in italics.
Underline - Click here to underline what you type.
Highlight - Use this to put color behind text.  Use the black down-arrow to choose the color.
Align Left - This makes the text line up along the left side of the page.
Center - This makes the text be centered on the page.

Align Right - This makes the text line up along the right side of the page.
Justify - This makes the text stretch all the way to both sides of the page.
Numbering - This puts a number at the start of each new line you type.  Good for tests.
Bullets - This puts bullets (little dots, squares, stars) at the start of each new line.  Good for making lists.
Decrease Indent - Move the start of the line to the left, usually 0.5 inch.
Increase Indent - Move the start of the line to the right, usually 0.5 inch.
Borders - Add a border line around your selected text.


Editing Your Text

One of the more important distinctions between a typewriter and a word processor is that with a word processor you can change whatever you type.  You can make text bolditalicizedunderlined, bigger, smaller, a different font, and more!

There are two main ways to edit your work.

  • The choose your format and then type method:  This is where you click a formatting button, like bold, and then start typing.  Everything you type is in bold until you click the bold button again to turn it off.
  • The type first then change format later method:  Sometimes you may wish to change the format on a section of text you have already typed.
  1. First you have to highlight the section you want to change.  To highlight you click and hold down the left mouse button at the start of the section.  Then with the mouse button held down, you drag the mouse to the end of the section.  Finally you can release the mouse button. 
    .  If not try, try again.  It takes practice.
  2. Now that it is highlighted you can click on whatever format button you wish.  The format change will apply only to the highlighted section.  You can delete large sections this way when you press the Delete key on your keyboard.

Microsoft Word is a powerful tool to create professional looking documents. Microsoft Word is currently one of the most commonly used applications for creating critical documents such as reports, letters, business plans, and more for the World Wide Web and for print. The newest version of Word extends this tradition by giving users the tools they need to streamline the process of creating, sharing, reviewing, and publishing their important documents. Word makes it easier for users to discover and use existing functionality and provides intelligent new ways for users to work with their documents. Word now also makes it easier for users to share and review documents with others without changing the way they currently work.
Microsoft Word 2000 gives you the tools to more easily create professional-quality documents and share information-in print, e-mail, and on the Web.

The Word Screen

The Word screen can be customized in many ways.  However the basic look is below:
Introduction to MS Word
The Application Window
When you open the program, you automatically open a new word processing document. The document window opens up in the Application Window.

The Menu Bar:
You can access all of the commands via the Menu Bar. The menu options are File, Edit, View, Insert, Format, Tools, Table, Window and Help. Some of the uses of these menus are detailed in the following sections.
Tool Bars
Many of the commands in the Menu Bar can more easily be accessed using the toolbars. The toolbars shown are the Standard and Formatting; they contain what Microsoft considers to be the most common commands. These bars can be customized according to the user.

Status Bar

The Status Bar tells you the page, time, date and other useful things such as whether the insert toggle button is pressed.

Your Document

The document is displayed in the large white space in the middle.
Ruler: The ruler (optional) tells you the width of your document as well as the margins and tab stops. To make the ruler appear or disappear, go to the View menu and click on the Ruler option.
Also note that the name of the document and the program you are working in (Microsoft Word) is displayed on the title bar.

The View Menu

The View menu is where you select how you would like to see your document while editing it. There are five different ways to view a document ( four of which have shortcut icons located in the lower left corner of the screen).

NORMAL
 -The Normal view is the one most used when creating and editing documents. What you see before you is only the main text, without Headers and Footers (this includes page numbers and footnotes). The layout is simplified so typing and editing can go more quickly.

ONLINE LAYOUT - a new feature in Word - optimizes the layout to make online reading easier. Text appears larger and wraps to fit the window, rather than the way it would actually print. By default, online layout view includes a resizable navigation pane called Document Map that shows the outline view of the document's structure. By clicking an outline topic of the document, you can instantly jump to that part of the document.

PAGE LAYOUT - Page Layout view displays the document exactly how it will be printed. Headers/Footers, Footnotes and Page Numbers are now visible. Page Layout view is good for editing a document that contains a lot of frames, objects, pictures or columns. In Normal view, these items will not be displayed as they are printed.

OUTLINE - The Outline view (far right icon) collapses a document into main headings and text without formatting. A new toolbar appears which allows even more ways of viewing the document. You can display only the document's headings, and change the importance of headings including the text beneath it. In this format, moving a heading will also move subheadings and all text beneath them.

FULL SCREEN - You must access this view from the View Menu; there is no shortcut icon in the lower left corner of the screen. In this view, everything disappears except for your document. Toolbars, menus, scroll bars, title bars, the ruler, and the status bar have all been hidden from view. At the bottom right-hand corner of your screen there appears a Full Screen toolbar with one button. Click the button Close Full Screen to return to your regular screen. If this button does not appear, simply type ALT-V to access the view menu and select your preferred method of viewing the document.

Zoom
Access the Zoom dialog box by going to the View Menu, and clicking Zoom. You can use the Zoom feature to view your document in varying sizes, and preview how your document will look. For a shortcut to the Zoom feature without a preview box, click on the arrow button next to the paragraph button. You will see a list of different Zoom factors. You can also input your own size by clicking on the box and entering a percentage.

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