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A Character denotes any letter, digit, punctuation mark, or any other sign used in the representation of information in any language. BASIC, like other computer languages, has the following character set:
  1. Alphabets:
  • A, B, C, D…………Z (26 character)
  1. Numerals:
  • 0, 1, 2, 3,…………9 (10 characters)
  1. Special Characters:
         -        Minus (operator for subtraction)
         +       plus (operator for addition)
         *       asterisk (multiplication operator)
                slash (division operator)
               caret (exponentiation operator)
         (        opening bracket (left parenthesis)
                closing bracket (right parenthesis)
         ,        comma
         ;        semicolon
         :        colon
        $        dollar symbol
             equality or assignment symbol
         .        decimal point
        >       greater than
        <       less than
                quotation mark (16 characters)
 
 Only these fifty-two characters are allowed to construct statements in BASIC. Blank space is a character when used in string constant. Other characters used are # and ?.

What is editor?
 ▪  Interface development environment in which you can execute your QBASIC source program is called editor.
 ▪  The editor which helps user to write and edit his programs.
 ▪  It is a tool for writing a programs.
 ▪  Below is Q-basic Editor for writing a q-basic programs

Concept of Compiler, Interpreter and Editor | Concept of Editor | What is an Editor? | Concept of Compiler | What is mean by Compiler? | Concept of Interpreter | What is mean by an Interpreter? | BCA-Notes | SEM-1| CPPM-Notes


    What is Compiler?
 ▪  A translator program that translates a high-level language program into its equivalent machine language program.
 ▪  It translates a whole programs and at the end it displays all the errors or warning at a time.
 ▪  It translates whole programs at a time.

  What is an Interpreter?
 ▪  It is also a translator program that translates a high-level language program into its equivalent machine language program.
 ▪  But it interpret(translates) one line and any error or warning is there then it displays it and stops the program conversion until you solve that error.
 ▪  It translates programs line by line.

"Computer programming in which the statements are organized in a specific manner to minimize error or misinterpretation."

 ▪  Structure Programming is an approach to the design and development of programs. It involves decomposing of the main program into smaller program segments called modules that define specific processing activities. The modules are arranged into a hierarchical structure. A module is a unit or entity that is responsible for a single task.

 ▪  Structures programming can be understood easily using abstraction. Abstraction means being able to understand the overall purpose of some code without understanding the detail.

 ▪  Structured programming is a special type of procedural programming. It provides additional tools to manage the problems that larger programs were creating. Structured programming requires that programmers break program structure into small pieces of code that are easily understood. It also frowns upon the use of global variables and instead uses variables local to each subroutine. One of the well known features of structural programming is that it does not allow the use of the GOTO statement.

 ▪  It is often associated with a “top-down” approach to design. The top-down approach begins with an initial overview of the system that contains minimal details about the different parts.

A set of instructions to carry out these functions is called a program. A group of such programs that are put into a computer to operate and control its activities is called the software. Software is an essential requirement of computer systems. As a car cannot run without fuel, a computer cannot work without software. There are four major kinds of software that are implemented as below:
  Figure : Layers of Software
1)      Operating System
2)      Utility Program
3)      Language Processors
4)      Application Program
  • Standards
  • Unique
1. Operating System:
 The software that manages the resources of a computer system and schedules its operation is called operating system. The operating system acts as an interface between the hardware and the user programs and facilitates the execution of the programs.
The principal functions of operating system include: 
▪  To control and coordinate peripheral devices such as printers, display screen and disk drives.
▪  To monitor the use of machine’s resources.
▪  To help the application programs execute its instructions.
▪  To help user develop programs.
▪  To deal with any faults that may occur in the computer and inform the operator.
 The most popular operating system for an 8-bit microprocessor is CP/M (Control Program for Microprocessors). Recently, with the introduction of 16/32-bit processors, operating systems such as MSDOS, UNIX and CP/M-86 are becoming popular.

2. Utility Program: There are many tasks common to a variety of application. Examples of such tasks are:
 ▪  Sorting a list in a desired sequence
 ▪  Merging of two programs
 ▪  Copying a program from one place to another
 ▪  Report writing   One need not write programs for these tasks. They are standard, and normally         handled by utility programs. Like the operating system, utility programs are pre-written by the   manufacturers and supplied with the hardware. They may also be obtained from standard software   vendors.    

  3. Language Processors: Computers can understand instructions only when they are written in their own language called the machine language. Therefore, a program written in any other language should be translated into machine language. Special programs called language processors are available to do this job. These special programs accept the user programs and check each statement and, if it is grammatically correct, produce a corresponding set of machine code instructions. Language processors are also known as translators.
 These are two forms of translators:     

  1. Compilers 
  2. Interpreters 

    A compiler checks the entire user-written program (known as the source program) and, if error-free, produces a complete program in machine language (known as object program).
   An interpreter does a similar job but in a different style. The interpreter translates one statement at a time and, if error-free, executes. This continues till the last statement. Thus an interpreter translates and executes the first instruction before it goes to the second, while a compiler translates the whole program before execution.
   The major differences between them are: 
  1.  Error correction (called debugging) is much simpler in the case of the   interpreter because it is done in stages. The compiler produces an error list for the entire program at the end.
  2. Interpreters take more time for the execution of a program compared to compilers because a statement has to be translated every time it is read.    
  4. Application Program: While an operating system makes the hardware run properly, application programs make the hardware do useful work. Application programs are specially prepared to do certain specific tasks. They can be classified into two categories.
  •  Standard application 
           ▪  Sales Ledger
           ▪  Purchase Ledger 
           ▪  Statistical Analysis 
           ▪  Pay roll 
           ▪  Inventory Management 
  •  Unique application- Requirement is unique that is unique application. There are situations where one may have to develop one’s own programs to suit one’s unique requirements.

What is Problem Solvig? | Computer as a Problem Solving Tool | Steps of Problem Solving | Methods of Problem Solving | How to solve any problems | BCA Notes | Sem-1 | CPPM-Notes
If we are to use the computer as a problem-solving tool, then we must have a good analysis of the problem given. Here are some suggested steps on how to go about analyzing a certain problem for computer application:
  1. Review the problem carefully and understand what you are asked to do. 
  2. Determine what information is given(input) and what result must be produced(output).
  3. Assign names to each input and output items.
  4. Determine the manner of processing that must be done on the input data to come up with the desired output (i.e., determine what formulas are needed to manipulate the given data).

Programming Languages:
  • The language used in the communication of computer instruction is known as the Programming language.
  •  The computer has its own language called binary language means computer can only understands binary language instructions. But it is very difficult to understand.
  •  Normally all the programming languages are written into high-level languages like English languages.
  • Some programming languages are C,C++,Java,Qbasic,vb.net etc.   
There are three levels of programming languages available.
  1.  Machine language (low level languages)
  2. Assembly (or symbolic) language
  3. Procedure-oriented languages( high level languages)   
1.Machine Language:
  •  Machine language means low level languages normally human can’t understand easily. This language includes binary code like o and 1 only.
  • It is very difficult to understand.
  • There is no need of any compiler.
Advantage:
  • It is very fast language because there is no translation process

Disadvantages:
  • It very difficult to understand
  • Difficult to debug a program
  • We need very deep knowledge of hardware   
2.Assembly Language:
  • It is also known as symbolic language it includes some symbols and letters to write a program instead of writing a binary code.
  • For example, ADD or A is used as a symbolic operation code represent addition and SUB or S is used for subtraction
  • There was very difficult to write a code using binary code so the solution of this problem is Assembly language it uses some symbols and letters instead of writing a binary code
  • Translator program is required to translate the Assembly Language to machine language. This translator program is called Assembler.
  • It is considered to be a second-generation language.
Advantage:
  • It is easy to understand compare to low level language
  • Easy to debug a program
Disadvantages:
  • We need very deep knowledge of hardware
  • Slower compare to low level languages because it require assembler to conversion process.
3.High level Language:
  • High level languages is more user friendly, human can easily understand this type of languages.  
  • These languages consists of a set of words and symbols and one can write programs using these in conjunctions with certain rules like ‘ENGLISH’ language.
  • It is like a English language so to understand to computer we need to convert it into low level language because computer can only understand low level language.
  • So there  is compiler used to convert it into low level language
  • The most important characteristics of a high level language is that it is machine independent and a program written in a high level language can be run on computers of different makes with little or no modification.
Advantage:
  • It is very easy to understand compare to low level and Assembly language
  • Easy to debug a program
Disadvantages:
  •  Slower compare to low level and Assembly languages because it require Compiler or Interpreter to convert high level language into machine code.


what is Programming Language? | What is Structured Language? | Definition of Programming Languages & Structured Programming | BCA Notes | Sem-1 | Cppm notes

what is flowchart | flowchart symbols description | cppm notes of flowchart | flowchart definition
 A flowchart is a diagrammatic representation that illustrates the sequence of operations to be performed to arrive at the solution.
  • A pictorial representation, which uses predefined symbols, to describe either the logic of a computer program (program flowchart), or the data flow and processing step of a system.
  • A flowchart is a pictorial form the sequence of steps performed for solving the problem.
In drawing flowchart, certain convention has come into use.

Indicates START or END  of the program

Indicates Computational steps (arithmetic operations)

Indicates an operation of reading or writing

Indicates a Decision Point. A test is performed and the program flow continues  on each outgoing path conditional to the answer to the test

Connector or joining of two parts of program

Indicates flow of the data

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