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Programming Languages & Structured Programming

Programming Languages:

▪  The language used in the communication of computer instruction is known as the Programming language.

▪  The computer has its own language called binary language means computer can only understands binary language instructions. But it is very difficult to understand.

▪  Normally all the programming languages are written into high-level languages like English languages.

▪  Some programming languages are C,C++,Java,Qbasic,vb.net etc.

 

There are three levels of programming languages are available.

1.      Machine language (low level languages)

2.      Assembly (or symbolic) language

3.      Procedure-oriented languages( high level languages)

 

Machine Language:

▪  Machine language means low level languages normally human can’t understand easily. This language includes binary code like o and 1 only.

▪  It is very difficult to understand.

▪  There is no need of any compiler.

Advantage:

▪  it is very fast language because there is no translation process

Disadvantages:

▪  it very difficult to understand

▪  Difficult to debug a program

▪  We need very deep knowledge of hardware

 

Assembly Language:

▪  It is also known as symbolic language it includes some symbols and letters to write a program instead of writing a binary code.

▪  for example, ADD or A is used as a symbolic operation code represent addition and SUB or S is used for subtraction

▪  there was very difficult to write a code using binary code so the solution of this problem is Assembly language it uses some symbols and letters instead of writing a binary code

▪  Translator program is required to translate the Assembly Language to machine language. This translator program is called Assembler.

▪  It is considered to be a second-generation language.

Advantage:

▪  It is easy to understand compare to low level language

▪  Easy to debug a program

Disadvantages:

▪  We need very deep knowledge of hardware

▪  Slower compare to low level languages because it require assembler to conversion process.

 

High level Language:

▪  High level languages is more user friendly, human can easily understand this type of languages.

▪  These languages consists of a set of words and symbols and one can write programs using these in conjunctions with certain rules like ‘ENGLISH’ language.

▪  It is like a English language so to understand to computer we need to convert it into low level language because computer can only understand low level language.

▪  So there  is compiler used to convert it into low level language

▪  The most important characteristics of a high level language is that it is machine independent and a program written in a high level language can be run on computers of different makes with little or no modification.

Advantage:

▪  It is very easy to understand compare to low level and Assembly language

▪  Easy to debug a program

Disadvantages:

▪  Slower compare to low level and Assembly languages because it require Compiler or Interpreter to convert high level language into machine code

 structured programming

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